What are the different types of law that exist?

Law is the system of rules which a country or community recognizes as regulations for actions taken by its citizens/residents, breaking of which may lead to the imposition of penalties or punishments. These laws help in smooth governance and functioning of the society and protect the interests and freedom of the country’s citizens and residents. The law of a country legally binds the citizens to function accordingly, as per the laws made. Laws of a democratic country ensure justice, equality and freedom to the citizens.

Law is a vast subject and there are several different types of laws that are enforced around the world. A few and prominent types of law are mentioned below.

    • Constitutional Law- Constitutional law basically refers to the laws that have been stated in the federal and state constitution of a country. It defines he roles, powers and responsibilities of different government entities within a state, such as the parliament, executive and judiciary along with the basic fundamental rights of the citizens. Constitutional law also deals with fundamental principles by which the government can exercise its authorities in areas such as taxation.
    • Environmental and natural resources Law- This law states the treaties, rules, regulations and common laws which address the consequence of human activity on the environment and natural resources. It establishes and protects the world’s natural resources and natural surroundings and promotes sustainable use of these natural resources. Environmental law covers a large range of environmental aspects such as air, water, land, flora and fauna of the world.

  • Property Law- This law governs and has jurisdiction over the ownership and possession of real property such as land, apartment, building, etc. It lay down the principles, rights and rules referring to which conflicts on property can be resolved. It deals with members of a society in relation to the property they own/possess as opposed to other laws which treats members as individuals.
  • International Law- It is a body of rule that has been established by a treaty or custom, to which the countries are bind to. This law deals with the relationship between countries which are a part of that particular treaty. It ensures the practice of stable and peaceful trade, and organized international relations.
  • Labor Law- This law governs the relationship between employees, employers, trade unions and the government. It concerns with the employee’s rights at work and ensures that there is no exploitation of the employees, by protecting them from the employers.
  • Criminal Law- This law prohibits acts such as threatening, causing harm, or endangering a person’s life, property, or welfare in any way. Breaking of criminal law will result in imprisonment of the guilty and not a compensation or fine.